Abstract: At present, the fake and shoddy products are still spreading, the number and scope also show an increasing trend, so the rapid development of anti-counterfeiting technology and the formation of anti-counterfeiting industry are urgently needed. This is the need to develop a socialist market economy, is to expand the opening up, the development of foreign trade, to ensure the orderly development of the national economy needs, is to purify the market, the need to maintain business and consumer interests. RFID technology as an advanced automatic identification and data acquisition technology, in the current security, logistics, public safety management plays an important role, and is expected to become the future of security, logistics, public safety management and other aspects of the pioneer.
Author: Anonymous Source: No public / Hong Shunjie
In the case of
China's rapid development of market economy, so that commodity circulation market is becoming increasingly active. However, due to our legal system is not yet sound, the market is not standardized, some criminals at home and abroad in order to reap huge profits, shoddy, to fake, formed a certain fake and shoddy goods market. Some high-tech products, but also to varying degrees by the impact of fake and shoddy products. This seriously disrupted the social market economic order, hinder the healthy development of China's economy. At present, fake and shoddy products are still spreading, the number and scope also show an increasing trend, so the urgent need for the rapid development of anti-counterfeiting technology and the formation of security industry. This is the need to develop a socialist market economy, is to expand the opening up, the development of foreign trade, to ensure the orderly development of the national economy needs, is to purify the market, the need to maintain business and consumer interests. RFID technology as an advanced automatic identification and data acquisition technology, in the current security, logistics, public safety management plays an important role, and is expected to become the future of security, logistics, public safety management and other aspects of the pioneer.
RFID (radio frequency identification technology) is the application of electromagnetic induction, radio waves or microwave for non-contact two-way communication, in order to achieve the purpose of identification and exchange of data automatic identification technology. In 1948, HarryStockman published the theoretical basis for RFID technology, which was published in the Institute of Radians Engineers' "CommunicationbyMeans ofReflectedPower". This technology began to emerge from the mid-1980s, and with the large-scale integrated circuit technology mature, radio frequency identification system greatly reduced the size, so only into the practical stage. RFID can be classified as short-range wireless communication technology, and other short-range wireless communication technology WLAN, Bluetooth, infrared, ZIGBEE, UWB compared to the biggest difference is that RFID passive mode of operation, that is, the use of reflected energy to communicate.
1.RFID system works
RFID system consists of the following components: ① electronic tags, composed of chips and tag antennas, through the principle of inductive coupling or electromagnetic backscatter to communicate with the reader. ② reader, read / write the label information device, as the data acquisition terminal, the reader also needs to exchange data with the middleware. ③ antenna, is for the label and the reader to provide radio frequency signal transmission equipment. ④ middleware, is to connect RFID equipment and enterprise applications, the link is also the core of RFID applications.
The working principle of the RFID system is as follows: The information to be transmitted by the reader is encoded and loaded on the carrier signal of a certain frequency to be transmitted out via the antenna. The electronic tag entering the reader's work area receives the pulse signal. The circuit for this signal modulation, decoding, decryption, and then the command request, password, permissions to determine. If the read command, the control logic circuit from the memory to read the relevant information, encrypted, encoded, modulated through the card after the antenna and then sent to the reader, the reader to receive the signal demodulation, decoding, decryption To the central information system to carry out the relevant data processing; if the command for the modification of the information, the control logic caused by the internal charge pump to enhance the working voltage, to provide the contents of the rewriting EEP-ROM to rewrite, if the judge their corresponding password and permissions Does not match, it returns an error message.
Smart labels are also known as radio frequency identification tags, it is the field of high-tech label products, and now has played an important role in product packaging, will gradually replace the traditional product labels and bar codes. Smart label is a rookie in the field of labels, it has beyond the traditional label function, is the electronics and computers and other high-tech in the label printed on the crystallization. RFID tags are a kind of smart tags. Table 1 compares RFID tags with magnetic cards, IC cards, and conventional bar codes in the same period or early automatic identification techniques.
RFID tags have a very good overall performance, its advantages are mainly reflected in:
① Each RFID tag corresponds to a globally unique ID number. The ID number is in the production of RFID tags produced in the process of writing to the memory, once written can not be modified, not easy to copy.
② RFID tags and RFID readers are transmitted through the wireless, you can identify high-speed, mobile, multi-object, so the label can be no mechanical wear in the case of multiple readings, and can be quickly read by the reader The
③ RF tags are large-scale integrated circuit technology designed chip. This chip, regardless of design and manufacturing are technically demanding and high investment, so to the counterfeiters caused insurmountable obstacles. At the same time RFID technology and password technology, from the software decipher also increased the cost of counterfeiters.
④RIDID label read with non-contact, the ability to adapt to the environment, can read multiple labels, read speed and other prominent features. Therefore, RFID anti-counterfeiting technology can not only be applied to famous cigarettes, wines and other valuable consumer products, can also be applied to industrial, agricultural, transportation-related products.
⑤RFID security of a natural advantage is combined with logistics for security. By tracking the supply chain of products, combined with the management of distributed database, to achieve the product traceability.
3.RFID technology at home and abroad development status quo
RFID technology in foreign development earlier and faster. Especially in the United States, Britain, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Japan, South Africa are now more mature and advanced RFID systems. RFID tags can be classified into different types such as low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), ultra high frequency (UHF) and special high frequency (SHF), depending on the frequency of operation. Among them, low-frequency close-range RFID system is mainly concentrated in the 125KHz, 13.56MHz system; high-frequency long-distance RFID systems are mainly concentrated in the UHF band (902MHz-928MHz) 915MHz, 2.45GHz, 5.8GHz. UHF band long-range RFID system in North America has been a very good development; European applications with active 2.45GHz system has been more applications. 5.8GHz system in Japan and Europe have a more mature active RFID system.
China's RFID technology research has also developed rapidly, the market has been the initial flowering results. It is typical in the Chinese railway car number automatic identification system construction, launched with completely independent intellectual property rights of the long-range automatic identification system. After many years of field operation test, the railway car number automatic identification system project in 1999 fully put into construction. After two years of construction and commissioning, the current railway car number automatic identification system project has played a system design function, round the dream of the railway people, and its radiation and penetration to other applications increasingly obvious role. In close proximity RFID applications, many cities have implemented bus RF cards as prepaid electronic tickets, prepaid e-meal cards and other applications. In the RFID technology research and product development, the country has a self-developed low-frequency, high-frequency and microwave RFID tags and reader technology and system integration capabilities. And the gap between foreign advanced RFID technology is mainly reflected in the RFID chip technology. Nevertheless, in the label chip design and development, the country has a number of successful low-frequency RFID system tag chip market.
Second, the application of RFID technology
RFID smart label because of its unique advantages, it is widely used in security, logistics, public management and other areas.
1.RFID technology in the application of security
① documents security. At present the international passport security, electronic wallet, etc. can be in the standard passport cover or document embedded in RFID tags, the chip also provides security features and support hardware encryption, in line with ISO14443 international standards. Domestic in this area has also formed a considerable scale of application, the second generation of identity cards to promote the use of this is a typical representative.
② ticket security. Some areas urgently need RFID technology, such as in the train station, subway and tourist attractions and other places, the use of RFID electronic tickets instead of traditional hand tickets to improve efficiency, or in the game and the performance of the larger ticketing occasions, Using RFID technology to carry out anti-counterfeiting tickets. This is not only no longer need to manually identify, to achieve the rapid adoption of personnel, but also to identify the number of tickets used to prevent the tickets were stolen out again to use, so that "the number of security."
2.RFID technology in railway safety tracking application
The traditional railway freight has been unable to meet the needs of modern logistics development, must provide transportation, storage, packaging, distribution, circulation, processing, information processing and other services of modern logistics industry development.
The Railway Transportation Management Information System (TMIS) covers not only the various financial departments of the Railway Administration, but also the railway stations in the whole railway station. It is the "world railway the most complex, the largest transport management system", the railway cargo vehicles, locomotives, trains, containers to track management; the main station can be the main station for computer management; the Ministry of Railways, Railway Bureau transport Scheduling and daily transport plan for computer preparation and management; covering the whole process of railway transport production, railway information is the core system, which consists of a number of subsystems, mainly: transport statistical analysis, transportation scheduling management, station integrated management, Information management, ticket information management, freight sales and technology planning, large node truck tracking management, vehicle number automatic identification system, drug safety tracking system, container tracking management, trucking fee settlement.
(ATIS) is an important part of TMIS, and it is also the most successful application case of RFID in China. ATIS establishes a railway train trips, locomotives, and locomotives by installing electronic tags on all locomotives and trucks and locating ground identification equipment at all stations, marshalling stations, large cargo terminals and demarcation stations to accurately identify trains and vehicle information. Truck number, logo, attributes and location of the computer information such as automatic reporting system. It can timely and accurately collect train trips, vehicle number and arrival information, to speed up the realization of the whole road trucks, locomotives, trains, container tracking management, to meet the TMIS and other management systems on the train, vehicle and other basic information needs, and ultimately to achieve transport operations management Modernization, networking and resource sharing. ATIS as a source of information for TMIS, its use for improving the use of railway locomotives, vehicle utilization, utilization, improve the efficiency of China's rail transport and transport management plays an extremely important role in the modernization level.
3.RFID technology in the application of public safety
In the field of food and medicine related to the health and safety of the people, the birth of RFID technology is of great significance. At present, the application of RFID technology in the pharmaceutical industry is mainly reflected in: anti-counterfeiting measures of drugs; to prevent drug errors and irrational drug use; patient identification and tracking; question drug recall; tracking documents, test tubes, vials or specimens; Equipment and medical equipment tracking.
RFID smart labels can help manufacturers and consumers to keep abreast of commodity inventory, circulation, durability, etc., for manufacturers to monitor their products in the supply chain in the situation and location play a significant role. For example, packaging for many foods and medicines must be stored in a specific temperature and low-pollution environment. The general label can not understand and monitor the temperature and nature of the product preservation, and smart labels in the product storage and transportation process can be timely monitoring of temperature requirements sensitive to perishable product temperature, it by virtue of special chips, antennas, sensors, Measure the temperature during storage and transportation, warning manufacturers to prevent the impact of temperature changes on the product, by checking the product inventory data to determine the sales of the product. In addition, the smart label RFID to improve the traditional label of the anti-counterfeiting effect, especially in the pharmaceutical packaging, its security features have greatly exceeded the traditional bar code. This effectively protects public safety.
Third, RFID technology is currently facing problems
1. Technology is immature
RFID is a promising industry, but its promotion requires the following steps and firmness: standard development, chip design and manufacturing technology, antenna design and manufacturing technology, chip packaging technology, read and write equipment development and production technology, system integration And data management software platform, application system development, manufacturing technology. The most promising UHF band can not support the equipment on the market, radio frequency identification signals are easily blocked by objects, these are technical challenges.
2. The cost is high
This is the most deadly shortcomings of RFID, RFID tags only one in Japan, the cost of production (printing costs accounted for the main proportion) to reach more than ten yuan, while the bar code label unit cost is only 0.l yuan. The current global RFID tag annual demand is about 10 million, and only the demand for more than 5 billion, the price can be reduced to 2 cents. Wal-Mart's RFID technology partner Tag-istics president Christopher said that a set of RFID systems in the United States pricing (including project implementation) is generally about 2.5 million US dollars, large-scale system is much higher. China Railway Express in recent years has been constantly testing the effectiveness of RFID systems, and its small-scale pilot, and ultimately found too much investment, as an enterprise can not afford this part of the investment.
3. The standard is not uniform
At present there are three main standards: international standards, Europe and the United States EPC standards and Japan's UbiquitousID. The role of the Auto-IDCenter nonprofit organization, which is sponsored by MIT's MIT in the United States, will become increasingly evident in regulating RFID applications. Auto-IDCenter's main contributions to RFID theory, technology and applied research are as follows:
① put the product code EPC (ElectronicProd